Cessna 210  Training 

Cessna T210 Training

Cessna P210 Training

Flight Level Aviation is uniquely able to offer a thorough Cessna 210/T210/P210 type specific checkout which includes:

  • In-flight training by a CFII/NAFI Master CFI (Richard Kaplan)  who actively owns/flies his own Cessna P210 and is also a physician who understands very well the physiological implications of high-altitude/pressurized flight
  • Simulator-based training using a full-motion simulator with a T210/P210 flight model from Kohlman Systems Research, Inc. (www.kohlmansystems.com)Richard Kaplan CFII Cessna 210 Training

Introductory, Initial, and Recurrent Cessna 210/T210/P210-Specific training programs are offered:

Introductory Training 
If you are considering the purchase of a Cessna 210/T210/P210 but are not certain if this aircraft will meet your needs, take a demonstration flight lesson to experience this aircraft type’s performance and handling characteristics. Click here to learn more.

Initial and Recurrent Training
Flight Level Aviation, Inc. has been approved for past students by USAIG Insurance, AIG, Global, and Aerospace for initial and annual recurrent Cessna P210 training. Please inquire regarding other insurance approval.

Flight Level Aviation’s training syllabus for the Cessna 210 closely adheres to the syllabus published by the AOPA Air Safety Foundation in its P210 Safety Review specifically for the purpose of pilot initial and recurrent training in this aircraft. The purchase and reading of this P210 Safety Review is required of all students, as is completion of the pre-solo exam therein.

The AOPA Air Safety Foundation estimates that a Cessna 210 checkout can be accomplished on average in 6.5 hours for an experienced pilot. Under the Flight Level Aviation training program, this time varies by pilot prior experience. An initial checkout typically can be accomplished in 10 flight hours (plus appropriate ground time); less time may be required for recurrency training or for a pilot with a very high level of prior aeronautical experience, and greater time may be required for very experienced pilots.

Upon completion of the Flight Level Aviation Initial or Recurrency 210 Training program, a pilot should be proficient in normal and emergency operations in the Cessna P210 and will have completed both a Biennial Flight Review and an Instrument Proficiency Check.

Group Weekend Training 
Please click here for information about a new group Cessna 210 training program offered by Flight Level Aviation.

Helpful Download -- Cessna 210/T210/P210 Type Certificate Data Sheet
Click here to download the official Type Certificate Data Sheet for all Cessna 210/T210/P210 airplanes

Cessna 210/T210/P210 Training Syllabus
All Cessna P210 training will be both individualized according to a given pilot’s need and based overall on the AOPA Air Safety Foundation P210 Safety Review. All training programs will include the following:

  • Review of Cessna 210/T210/P210 accident history, with special attention to specific features of this aircraft (for example: vapor lock, shape/size of the fuel tanks, and fuel pump system) which have established trends in prior accident evaluations 
  • Emphasis on electric trim as a particularly insidious and potentially lethal failure mode for this aircraft 
  • Review of pre-solo exam 
  • Review of type-specific checklist (a list developed by Flight Level Aviation over the last 4 years which currently contains almost 100 items unique to this aircraft and its systems which are useful in a practical sense during preflight inspections and during ground and flight operations) 
  • Review aircraft maintenance logs and weight and balance 
  • Review of operation of installed avionics, with particular attention to aircraft specific factors, such as GPS/autopilot coupling 
  • Review of supplemental type certificated items which could affect aircraft performance (including but not limited to intercoolers, STOL kits, dual vacuum pumps, digital engine monitors, and/or icing equipment) 
  • Basic air maneuvers (including stalls in multiple configurations, steep turns, power settings for climbing and level flight and descent under various ambient temperature conditions) 
  • Takeoff and landing proficiency, including short field, no-flap, crosswind, and high density altitude considerations at varying aircraft weights 
  • Simulated or actual performance of all emergency checklist items, including engine failures in multiple configurations, flight control or flap system failure, inflight fire, vacuum and electrical system loss, use of manual gear extension system, unforecast icing encounters, and sudden decompression/emergency descent 
  • Instrument proficiency evaluation, emphasizing partial panel operations enroute and on approach 
  • Turbocharger critical altitude check and pressurization system operational testing 
  • Detailed review of engine power and fuel flow operating parameters for safety and engine longevity 
  • Ground and in-flight review of high altitude physiology, including simulated operation of the aircraft’s oxygen generating system, actual in-flight pulse oximetry, and correlation of such pulse oximetry with projected times of useful consciousness in the event of sudden decompression 
  • Review of air traffic control considerations specific to this aircraft (limitations in aircraft climb and descent rates which may be viewed by air traffic control as unusual for an aircraft capable of flying in the flight levels) 
  • High altitude cross-country flight, culminating in a flight of 200 nautical miles or greater at or above Flight Level 200 with a full stop landing at a Class B primary airfield under instrument flight rules. Depending on weather conditions and student interest, this flight may alternately culminate in a simulated high-altitude engine failure with a "dead stick" instrument approach – the ultimate IFR simulated emergency! 
  • Review of pertinent recent published articles from the popular aviation publishing community in reference to safe operation of the Cessna P210 

Cessna 210/T210/P210 Training Checklist

Cessna 210/T21/P210 training programs include use of a 210-specific training checklist developed and continually modified by Richard to cover important type-specific areas of training in this airplane. This checklist will include the following:

  • Lowered risk of water contamination of fuel with non-recessed fuel caps
  • Importance of fueling aircraft “to the brim” in proper ground attitude when planning cross-country flight
  • Emergency procedures for vapor lock (fuel pump on, switch tanks)
  • Caution against use of fuel pump routinely for takeoff or cruise
  • Full throttle activates high setting of fuel pump (important if engine failure occurs on takeoff)
  • Operation of interlock mechanism on pilot door (? Lock vs . Unlock safety lock)
  • Procedures if emergency exit opens in flight (expect buffeting, opening openable window may reduce this)
  • Preflight/Pre-purchase to include check of horizontal stabilizer noseribs and implications for ground handling (powered tug recommended)
  • Location of hydraulic fluid reservoir (check each 25 hours)
  • Location of 5 fuel sumps during preflight
  • Preflight inspection of propeller spinner (slightly loose/low) and propeller blades (no looseness permitted)
  • Emphasize proper leaning and cylinder/TIT temperature monitoring procedures
  • Limiting factor for summer climbs = Cylinder head temps
  • Limiting factor for leaning = TIT temperature
  • Altered power settings for intercooler-equipped aircraft including intercooler myths i.e. do not reduce power on takeoff for an intercooled engine
  • Emergency gear extension procedure
  • Emergency descent procedure for decompression at high altitude
  • High altitude physiology factors, esp. re: exponentially increased risks above 18,000 feet
  • Inspection/Replacement of oxygen generator
  • Flight planning for climb/descent distances for high altitude flight
  • ATC factors for high-altitude flight (ATC often unfamiliar with relatively low P210 climb/descent rates for a flight-level-flown aircraft)
  • Physiology of moving pressurization controls in-flight
  • Pressurization system = Electric+Pneumatic+Mechnical and implications for emergency operations
  • Implications of cabin pressurization differential in marginally high range (aircraft has reverted to backup outflow system)
  • Location of pressurization bulkhead
  • Locations which can block pressurization outflow valves
  • Go-Around procedure (timing of gear up?, not specified in POH)
  • Switching fuel tanks consistently enroute (50 lb. max imbalance for factory autopilot) -- by time or fuel flow?
  • *** Electric Trim = Most Dangerous part of aircraft ***à Runaway trim can be unrecoverable if undetected, Extreme control forces can occur by attempting to manually control pitch when autopilot is engaged, Need to memorize location of electric trim circuit breaker
  • Maximum altitude loss during autopilot malfunction à Implications for autopilot-coupled approaches
  • Need for autopilot disengage check as part of pre-flight/runup
  • Need to memorize location of gear motor circuit breaker in event pump stays on after takeoff
  • Procedures to verify gear-down (visually, gear-down light/switch bulbs, audible warning/retard throttle) (Recommend add-on mirror to verify nosegear is down)
  • Procedures for landing gear-up if necessary
  • Potential high sink-rate on final with no power vs. long rollout if final flown with power on
  • Cessna Pilots Association vs. Lycoming recommendations/Aircraft placard for leaning procedures (operate lean of peak vs. rich of peak?, GAMIjectors?)
  • Implications of operating prop heat if ammeter does not respond appropriately (potential asymmetric prop icing)
  • Competing theories of de-ice boot operation/timing
  • De-Ice vs. Known-Ice, icing procedures in POH
  • Warning signs of induction icing 
  • Cowl flap operation (keep open in summer esp. if digital engine probe not available?)
  • “Critical vacuum pump” for dual-vacuum pump aircraft with boots
  • *** Accident History  i.e. Dual vacuum pumps and/or dual vacuum/electric attitude indicators seem essential
  • Max Takeoff Weight vs. Max Landing Weight
  • Critical circuit breakers – Gear motor, electric trim, autopilot
  • Methods to deactivate autopilot (intentionally and unintentionally)
  • Never manually overpower autopilot in pitch!
  • Note and observe altitude guideline for maximum altitude loss if autopilot malfunctions
  • Autopilot preflight techniques (multiple axis)
  • Max gear operating speed 
  • Max gear-down speed = Never exceed speeds (facilitates emergency descent esp. after depressurization)
  • Max speed for 10 degrees flaps, full flaps
  • Max takeoff power = 5 minutes
  • Caution against overboosting turbocharger, esp. in winter
  • Hot starting procedure
  • Presence/Use of manual fuel primer (and importance to check as part of preflight inspection)
  • Timing of gear-up decision and related safety factors
  • Cabin altitude light illumination implications
  • Use of alternate static source
  • Location of tie-down rings
  • Location of fuel vents (check during preflight)
  • Potential for filliform corrosion on original foam-filled trim tab and horizontal stabilizer trailing edge
  • Use of rudder trim in takeoff vs. cruise and implications for fuel spray from fuel vents
  • Ice light location/use
  • Availability of CPA Cessna 210 Systems/Procedures Course
  • Check for operation of avionics fan during preflight (No-Go Item)
  • Operation of cabin ventilation fan for passenger comfort
  • Use of rudder trim essential for proper autopilot navigation
  • Heater/Defroster interlock to prevent damage to windshield
  • ** Caution against ground operation with significant power esp. in vicinity of stones; marginal soft-field abilities of this aircraft
  • Location of Squat Switch
  • Nose strut inflation technique (Nitrogen)
  • Proper Intercooler operation (altered power settings, caution operating unintentionally at too high a power setting) (** Controversial/Debatable)
  • Intercooled aircraft typically set for takeoff fuel flow above redline (for adequate fuel flow at higher altitudes)
  • Typical target TIT <1500, CHT < 400, Oil temp < 200
  • Competing theories of boot operation timing (See article)
  • *** Importance of replacing original factory fuel caps to minimize water entry in tanks
  • *** Pre-flight inspection to check for damaged noseribs on horizontal stabilizer
  • Caution high power or taxiing over stones/gravel/soft fields during ground operations
  • Continental TopCare program for engine trend monitoring
  • Importance of engine baffling/oil cooler to engine life
  • Alternate points of view re: leaning engine on ground
  • Turbocharger theory and critical altitude check procedure
  • Consider 2 weight/balance lists (with 6th seat installed vs. removed)
  • Location of autopilot computer (often under rear seats)
  • How to identify turbocharger failure on engine runup
  • Failure modes with double alternator failure (i.e. master switch solenoid) --> Suggest Battery-powered backup GPS
  • Varied trim settings based upon aircraft loadings
  • Oil filler cap gasket as a critical preflight item
  • Need to carry high-altitude enroute charts for flight at and above FL180
  • Potential altitude-related failure mode of fuel controller
  • Need to include fuel flow in scan on takeoff run (186 lbs./hr), implications on engine operation and pilot reactions to low vs. high fuel flow
  • Failure modes with dual vacuum pump, including need to inspect/replace vacuum manifold periodically
  • Potential sources pressurization leaks, including common (emergency door or windows) and uncommon (gear boots leading to pressurization leak only when gear up)
  • Do not be alarmed at pressurization "whistles"
  • Limitations/Comparisons of Cessna Standby Generator vs. B&C Alternator vs. TurboAlternator
  • Operating considerations/limitations for Speed Brake and/or STOL equipped airplanes
  • Operating considerations/limitations for airplanes with wing-tip and/or baggage compartment fuel tanks
  • Emergency gear procedures with vs. without gear doors, i.e. turning off master switch can open solenoid
  • Pilot and Maintenance procedures to address temperature-depenent variance in fuel flow on takeoff
  • Identification/implications on boot operations of weak but operative primary vacuum pump
  • Implications of asymmetric prop icing with partial prop heat failure
  • Operation of 2 door interlocks both inside and outside cabin
  • Operational cautions vs. usefulness operating with pressurization set to sea level in winter
  • Door mechanism operation to seal fully when plane is left in rain
  • Minimum airspeed for operation in icing conditions
  • Landing procedures after encountering icing conditions
  • Minimum airspeed in icing condition climb
  • Hot start procedures
  • Operating procedures at high density altitude airports
  • Pros/cons of leaning for taxi
  • Turbocharger cooldown procedures
  • Flight profiles to avoid shock cooling
  • Comparative risk of decompression in a single-engine piston airplane vs. multi-engine turboprop/jet
  • Consider 20-minute emergency oxygen system for flight above Fl190 in P210
  • Consider carrying Afrin onboard for depressurization medical incidents
  • High altitude engine performance including "bootstrapping"
  • High altitude restart tehniques including comparison of Cessna vs. Continental recommendations
  • Recent P210 inflight breakup an potential causes/preventive techniques
  • Potential engine failure from loss of upper air deck hose and corrective action (boost pump on)
  • Seasonal variations in engine operating procedures
  • Varying thoughts on takeoff fuel flow, i.e. redline vs. over redline
  • Life-limited parts on P210 (windshield, window, ice light)
  • Consider 10 degrees flaps with electrical failure to minimize runway length requirements for landing
  • Operation of exterior courtesy light
  • Operation procedures with original vs. slope turbo controller
  • Use of high vs. low fuel pump for emergency procedures
  • Use of high vs. low fuel pump for normal procedures in start and climb
  • Tendency of fuel to spray from vents if tanks are full and ball is not centered in climb
  • Importance of pre-flighting fuel vents esp. in cold weather
  • Technique to verify TKS tanks are full
  • Cessna 400B Autopilot operating quirks esp. with newer GPS units
  • Fuel tank switching procedure/timing to minimize vapor lock
  • Weaker brakes when flying from right seat
  • Avoid both flaps and speedbrakes in icing conditions
  • Identifying TKS pump failure
  • Inconel vs. Stainless exhausts:  Maintenance and AD issues; Stainless has some possible advantages in terms of failure modes
  • Implications of static system leak inside vs. outside pressure vessel re: partial panel interpretation
  • Post-start ammeter check
  • Implications of vacuum system leak in pressurized vs. non-pressurized flight
  • Gear mirror design for known-ice compatibility
  • Oil temperature variance with outside temperature vs. phase of flight vs. engine age vs. oil selection vs. mechanical malfunctions
  • Throttle controller calibration effects vs. oil temperature
  • Reasons to consider flying with electric pressurization switch "on" at all times with dump valve pulled
  • Static wick effects on avionics function
  • Door pin pre-flight and damage prevention considerations
  • Effect of overly long breather tube on icing risks
  • Effect of improperly shaped/sized fuel vents on icing considerations
  • Rigging test to assure no interference between rudder and elevator
  • Grounding strap in tail section
  • Availability of structural support STC for tail
  • Inspect nosewheel pins for absence of towing damages
  • Vinyl flap tabs to prevent damage with movement
  • Multiple possible modes of turbocharger failure -- wastegate, turbo controller, blade loss, oil leak
  • Importance of changing turbo check valve on a regular basis
  • Performance tables for original airframe vs. modified induction air scoop
  • Significant potential of aircraft to weathervane without full aileron to stop on crosswind takeoff or landing roll
  • Turn off autopilot in icing conditions
  • Conditions amenable to elevator or elevator trim freeze in icing conditions and procedures to handle these situations
  • Cowl flap position can affect vacuum pump pressure
  • Run both TKS pumps periodically for lubrication purposes (if equipped with known-ice TKS)
  • Windshield TKS pumps prime main pumps
  • Nose strut inflation can affect proper operation of squat switch
  • Freezing water can cause control surface failure at altitude, especially elevator trim tab
  • High-pitched sound from runaway gear-up motor
  • Significance of 209 bulkhead cracks
  • Leaking near wingroot seals can cause random gear horn activation after rain
  • Include fuel overflow line on belly of aircraft as part of pre-flight inspection
  • Inconel vs. Stainless exhaust considerations and inspection requirements
  • 30"/2500 produces higher temps than 31"/2500 -- thus increase airspeed before reducing power if CHTs increase in climb
  • Turning difficulties from overinflation of nose strut
  • Fuel vent concerns re: potential leakage if aircraft is parked on unlevel surface; may be reduced if "Both" fuel selector [if available] is switched to a single tank
  • Why is a hand primer installed on a fuel-injected engine?  For hand-propping?  (Not advisable)
  • "LOP Hiccup" can occur particularly at high altitude for those who choose lean of peak operation
  • POH Fuel Flows are minimums for rich of peak engine cooling; they are not target fuel flows to set engine power
  • "The Elusive Falling Manifold Pressure in climb" including causes and correction techniques
  • Resistor setup controls operation of low boost pump - does it increase or decrease fuel flow when activated in climb?
  • Potential causes of fire when starting in winter, including auxillary fuel pump drain overflow risk
  • In-flight decision making with smoke in cockpit due to electrical vs. engine vs. cabin sources
  • Failure modes of throttle vs. prop vs. mixture control cables
  • Throttle setting effects on air inflow with in-flight fire
  • Landing with inoperative elevator
  • Physiology and physics of sudden decompression
  • Beware potential for inoperative manual primer with outflow disconnected but inflow still operating
  • Static and alternate static source locations on pressurized aircraft and implications for failure of static system or static instruments
  • Engine may stop on landing roll if mixture set too rich or if fuel pump left on for landing
  • Differences in part-throttle critical altitude for P210 serial numbers 761+ vs. earlier


P210 Pressurization/High Altitude Checkout
Pressurization can be an extremely effective tool to add comfort, utility, and safety to operation of an aircraft. However, understanding the advantages and limitations of pressurization is important for safety, particularly in a single-engine, non-redundantly pressurized aircraft such as the Cessna P210.

Dr. Kaplan’s dual experience as a physician/aviation medical examiner and a flight instructor is very helpful in explaining and demonstrating the medical considerations involved in pressurized flight, including application of this information to a particular student’s medical history, where applicable. This is done both in ground school (reviewing curves of useful times of consciousness after sudden decompression) and by in-flight use of a pulse oximeter (a painless oxygen sensor on a pilot’s finger) to give each student specific guidelines for safe aircraft and cabin altitude selections specific to that pilot’s medical history.

Specific items covered during the pressurized/high-altitude portion of a Cessna P210 checkout include the following:

Ground Instruction

  • Turbocharger/pressurization system operational check enroute to FL230
    • Small pressurization leaks are common (typically from right-side emergency door) and may preclude reaching FL230 with appropriate cabin altitude
    • Aircraft responsiveness reduces with altitude, especially above FL200
    • Caution to avoid turning on fuel boost pump with engine operating
  • Turbocharger high-altitude “bootstrapping” theory
  • Review of high altitude of physiology, esp. re: sudden decompression and useful length of consciousness
    • Consider pulse oximetry demonstration
    • Risk rises exponentially above FL190
  • Consider systems interactions with a high-altitude engine failure
    • Vacuum systems inoperative (thus boots and DG/AI inoperative) 
      • Electric AI and panel avionics continue to operate but descent time could exceed useful battery life à Consider Handheld GPS with electronic HSI
    • If equipped with TKS, consider brief TKS operation in descent to build up passive effect of TKS fluid throughout remainder of descent
  • Review of P210 oxygen system maintenance/operation
    • Failure modes of oxygen generators
    • Discussion of service bulletin for periodic replacement
    • Limitations of a one-use-only oxygen generator 
  • Review of lower flight level weather strategies
    • Useful to top weather in winter
    • Unable to top weather in summer; Lower/VFR flight is usually a better strategy in summer
    • Winds aloft can be a determining flight planning factor, especially in winter
    • Always File IFR above 12,000 Feet: Note it is often difficult from this altitude or above to discern whether a pure VFR descent will be attainable
  • Use and Pitfalls of High Altitude Enroute Charts
    • Consider filing for a Full Route Clearance as preferable to Jet routes

Flight Instruction

  • Descent planning from the Flight Levels
    • ATC Often not familiar with P210 descent profile
    • Delayed descent must be considered in fuel planning contingencies – Do not run out of fuel while descending over airport!
    • Culminate in landing at a Class B Primary airport
  • Emergency Descent
    • Published/Smooth Air procedure (gear down, flaps up, pitch to redline)
    • Consider effects of propeller position
    • Alternate approach: Steep Spiral
    • Alternate approach: Lower speed with full or partial flaps
  • High Altitude Engine Failure in IMC: Emergency Dead Stick Approach Options
    • Mental calculation of descent profile
    • Midfield crossover at predetermined altitude 
    • GPS VNAV (Panel-Mount or Handheld)
    • Do not forget engine restart is more difficult above 15,000 feet: Consider additional engine restart attempt at or below this altitude


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